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Does the program have a responsibility to report that? In a situation in which a program thinks it might have to report a past crime, there are generally three questions to consider:. Generally, the answer to this question is no. In most States, there is no duty to tell the police about a crime committed in the past.

Even those States that impose a duty to report rarely prosecute violations of the law.

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Whether or not citizens have a legal obligation to report past crimes to the police, State law may protect conversations between counselors of substance use disorder treatment programs and their clients and exempt counselors from any requirement to report past criminal activity by clients. State laws vary widely on the protection they accord communications between clients and counselors. In some States, admissions of past crimes may be considered privileged, and counselors may be prohibited from reporting them; in others, admissions may not be privileged.

Moreover, each State defines the kinds of relationships protected differently. Whether a communication about past criminal activity is privileged and therefore cannot be reported may depend on the type of professional the counselor is and whether she is licensed or certified by the State. Any program that is especially concerned about this issue should ask a local attorney for an opinion letter about whether there is a duty to report and whether any counselor-client privilege exempts counselors from that duty.

Any program that decides to make a report to law enforcement authorities about a client's prior criminal activity must do so without violating either the Federal confidentiality regulations or State laws. A program that decides to report a client's crime can comply with the Federal regulations by following one of the first three methods described above in the discussion of duty to warn: It can make a report in a way that does not identify the adolescent as a client in substance use disorder treatment.

Consent to Treatment

If the adolescent is an offender who has been mandated into treatment by a criminal justice or juvenile justice agency, the program can make a report to that justice agency, if it has a CJS consent form signed by the adolescent that is worded broadly enough to allow this sort of information to be disclosed. Note, however, that the regulations limit the actions law enforcement officials may take once they have received the information.

Because of the complicated nature of this issue, any program considering reporting an adolescent's admission of criminal activity should seek the advice of a lawyer familiar with local law as well as the Federal regulations. Because past criminal activity may not indicate an emergency, the counselors do not have to decide immediately whether to report it.

This issue can be addressed with the client as a treatment issue. With the support of a program and proper legal advice, the adolescent may report the crime himself. The answer is more straightforward when an adolescent client has committed or threatens to commit a crime on program premises or against program personnel. In this situation, the regulations permit the program to report the crime to a law enforcement agency or to seek its assistance.

One crime that an adolescent might well commit on program premises is drug possession--bringing drugs into the program either on her person or if the program is residential in her luggage. When a program finds drugs on a client or in a client's personal property, what should it do? Should the program call the police? What should it do with the drugs? The answer to the first question has already been discussed above in the section dealing with reporting criminal activity. Generally, State law does not require programs to make such a report.

As for the second question, State regulations often govern how a program may dispose of drugs, sometimes requiring that they be flushed down a toilet. Programs should check with their State substance abuse agency if they are unsure about State mandates. Adolescents in treatment for a substance use disorder may engage in risky activities such as renewed drug-taking, criminal behavior, risky sexual conduct, or other activity dangerous to themselves or others.

If a counselor believes that the adolescent's conduct is dangerous and counseling seems not to be productive in reducing that behavior, what should he do?


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This chapter has already examined what the counselor cannot do: He cannot call the adolescent's parents without the adolescent's consent and, unless there are unusual circumstances, he most likely cannot call law enforcement authorities. There are, however, some things he can do: If the adolescent has relapsed into substance use and the relapse has reached the point where it threatens her health and requires immediate medical intervention, the counselor could call the adolescent's family doctor under the "medical emergency" exception.

Note that the situation must be a real medical emergency. For the other requirements of this section, see below. Alternatively, the program could apply for a court order that would authorize it to inform the adolescent's parents or other responsible adults. Neither of these alternatives is very satisfactory. A program can use the "medical emergency" exception only in very limited circumstances, and obtaining a court order is time-consuming and expensive. There is a more satisfactory option: When a program admits an adolescent who has a history of risk-taking behavior, the program could ask the adolescent to sign a consent form that authorizes the program to tell an adult the adolescent trusts if the adolescent's behavior takes a dangerous turn.

The adult named could be a parent or other relative, a minister or youth counselor, or anyone else with whom the adolescent has rapport. An adolescent entering treatment might consent to this arrangement because she may believe, as do many people entering treatment, that she will not suffer a relapse. An added benefit of this kind of request is that it demonstrates to the adolescent that the program respects her feelings and preferences, takes confidentiality seriously, and will not disclose information to others without the adolescent's consent.

Note that if a counselor notifies the person named in the consent form, that person is bound by the regulations not to disclose the information further without the adolescent's consent, unless he can do so without revealing the fact that the adolescent is in treatment for a substance use disorder. The adolescent can revoke her consent at any time. All 50 States and the District of Columbia have statutes requiring reporting when there is reasonable cause to believe or suspect that child abuse or neglect is occurring.

Although many State statutes are similar, each has different rules about what kinds of conditions must be reported, who must report, and when and how reports must be made.


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  6. When a program makes such a report, it should generally notify the family, unless the notification would place the child in further danger. The program should also endeavor to continue to work with the family as the State investigates the complaint and the child protective process unfolds. Families should never be abandoned because of suspected abuse or neglect, and health care providers should be wary of making judgments until a comprehensive assessment has been completed by State authorities.

    Most States now require not only physicians but also educators and social service workers to report child abuse. Most States require an immediate oral spoken report, and many now have toll-free numbers to facilitate reporting. Half of the States require that both oral and written reports be made.

    All States extend immunity from prosecution to persons reporting child abuse and neglect. Most States provide penalties for failure to report.

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    Program staff will often need some form of training to review the State's child abuse and neglect laws and to clearly explain what the terms abuse and neglect really mean according to the law. A lay person's--or a professional's--idea of child neglect may differ greatly from the legal definition. For example, in some States, a child living with a parent involved in extensive substance abuse, perhaps surrounded by a culture of drugs and alcohol, is not considered to be abused or neglected unless certain other conditions are met.

    Such legal definitions may go against the grain of what some staff members consider to be in the best interest of the child, but these are safeguards that have developed over time to protect the child, the parent, and the family unit. Because of the variation in State law, programs should consult an attorney familiar with State law to ensure that their reporting practices are in compliance. Administrators, in turn, should shoulder the responsibility to make the required reports.

    The Federal confidentiality regulations permit programs to comply with State laws that require the reporting of child abuse and neglect. However, this exception to the general rule prohibiting disclosure of any information about a client applies only to initial reports of child abuse or neglect. Programs may not respond to followup requests for information or to subpoenas for additional information, even if the records are sought for use in civil or criminal proceedings resulting from the program's initial report.

    The only situation in which a program may respond to requests for followup information is when the adolescent consents or the appropriate court issues an order under subpart E of the regulations. Reference has been made to other exceptions to the general rule prohibiting disclosure regarding an adolescent who seeks or receives substance use disorder treatment services.

    In the subsections that follow, six exceptions to the Federal confidentiality rules are examined in greater detail: Disclosures that do not reveal that the client as having a substance use disorder Disclosures authorized by court order Disclosures during medical emergencies Disclosures to an outside agency that provides a service to the program Disclosures of information within the program Disclosures of information to researchers, auditors, and evaluators. Federal regulations permit substance use disorder treatment programs to disclose information about an adolescent if the program reveals no client-identifying information.

    Thus, a program may disclose information about an adolescent if that information does not identify him as having a substance use disorder or support anyone else's identification of the adolescent as having a substance use disorder. There are two basic ways a program may make a disclosure that does not identify a client. The first way is obvious: A program can report aggregate data about its population summing up information that gives an overview of the clients served in the program or some portion of its population.

    Thus, for example, a program could tell the newspaper that, in the last 6 months, it screened 43 adolescent clients female and 33 male. The second way has already been discussed: Thus, a program that provides services to adolescents with other problems or illnesses as well as substance use disorders may disclose information about a particular client e. A counselor employed by a program that is part of a general hospital could call the police about a threat an adolescent made, so long as the counselor did not disclose that the adolescent has a substance use disorder or is a client of the treatment program.

    Programs that provide only substance use disorder services cannot disclose information that identifies a client under this exception, because letting someone know a counselor is calling from the "XYZ Treatment Program" will automatically identify the adolescent as someone in the program.

    However, a free-standing program can sometimes make "anonymous" disclosures, that is, disclosures that do not mention the name of the program or otherwise reveal the adolescent's status as having a substance use disorder. Note that with the widespread use of caller identification, "anonymous" communications may not be so anonymous. Soon, it may no longer be possible for a freestanding program to use this kind of anonymous communication. A State or Federal court may issue an order that will permit a program to make a disclosure about an adolescent that would otherwise be forbidden.

    A court may issue one of these authorizing orders, however, only after it follows certain special procedures and makes particular determinations required by the regulations. Before a court can issue an order authorizing a disclosure about an adolescent that is otherwise forbidden, the program and the adolescent whose records are sought must be given notice of the application for the order and some opportunity to make an oral or written statement to the court. Before issuing an authorizing order, the court must find that there is "good cause" for the disclosure.

    A court can find "good cause" only if it determines that the public interest and the need for disclosure outweigh any negative effect that the disclosure will have on the client or the doctor-client or counselor-client relationship and the effectiveness of the program's treatment services. There are also limits on the scope of the disclosure that a court may authorize, even when it finds good cause. The disclosure must be limited to information essential to fulfill the purpose of the order, and it must be restricted to those persons who need the information for that purpose.

    The court may order disclosure of "confidential communications" by an adolescent to the program only if the disclosure Is necessary to protect against a threat to life or of serious bodily injury Is necessary to investigate or prosecute an extremely serious crime including child abuse Is in connection with a proceeding at which the adolescent has already presented evidence concerning confidential communications e. If the purpose of seeking the court order is to obtain authorization to disclose information to law enforcement authorities so that they can investigate or prosecute a client for a crime, the court must also find that 1 the crime involved is extremely serious, such as an act causing or threatening to cause death or serious injury; 2 the records sought are likely to contain information of significance to the investigation or prosecution; 3 there is no other practical way to obtain the information; and 4 the public interest in disclosure outweighs any actual or potential harm to the client, the doctor-client relationship, and the ability of the program to provide services to other clients.

    When law enforcement personnel seek the order, the court must also find that the program had an opportunity to be represented by independent counsel. A program may make disclosures to public or private medical personnel "who have a need for information about [an adolescent] for the purpose of treating a condition which poses an immediate threat to the health" of the adolescent or any other individual.

    The medical emergency exception permits disclosure only to medical personnel. This means that the exception cannot be used as the basis for a disclosure to the police or other nonmedical personnel, including parents. Under this exception, however, a program could notify a private physician or school nurse about a suicidal adolescent so that medical intervention can be arranged. The physician or nurse could, in turn, notify the adolescent's parents, so long as no mention is made of the adolescent's substance use disorder.

    Whenever a disclosure is made to cope with a medical emergency, the program must document the following information in the adolescent's records: The name and affiliation of the recipient of the information The name of the individual making the disclosure The date and time of the disclosure The nature of the emergency. If a program routinely needs to share certain information with an outside agency that provides services to it, then it can enter into what is known as a QSOA.

    A QSOA is a written agreement between a program and a person or agency providing services to the program, in which that person or agency: A QSOA should be used only when an agency or official outside the program is providing a service to the program itself. An example is when laboratory analyses or data processing are performed for the program by an outside agency. A QSOA is not a substitute for individual consent in other situations.

    Disclosures under a QSOA must be limited to information that is needed by others so that the program can function effectively. A QSOA may not be used between different programs providing substance use disorder treatment and other services. The Federal regulations permit some information to be disclosed to staff members within the same program. A question that frequently arises is whether this exception allows a program that treats adolescents and that is part of a larger entity, such as a school, to share confidential information with others who are not part of the assessment or treatment unit itself.

    The answer to this question is among the most complicated in this area. In brief, there are circumstances under which the substance use disorder treatment unit can share information with other units. However, before such an internal communication system is set up within a large institution, it is essential that an expert in the area be consulted for assistance.

    The Federal confidentiality regulations require programs to notify clients of their right to confidentiality and to give them a written summary of the regulations' requirements. The regulations contain a sample notice. Programs can use their own judgment to decide when to permit adolescents to view or obtain copies of their records, unless State law allows clients or students the right of access to records. The Federal regulations do not require programs to obtain written consent from clients before permitting them to see their own records.

    The Federal regulations require programs to keep written records in a secure room, a locked file cabinet, a safe, or other similar container. Substance use disorder treatment programs should try to find a lawyer who is familiar with local laws affecting their problems. As has already been mentioned, State law governs many concerns relating to treatment of adolescents. A practicing lawyer with an expertise in adolescent substance use concerns is the best source for advice on such issues.

    Moreover, when it comes to certain issues, the law is still developing. For example, programs' duty to warn of clients' threats to harm others is constantly changing as courts in different States consider cases brought against a variety of different kinds of care providers. Programs trying to decide how to handle such a situation need up-to-the minute advice on their legal responsibilities. This chapter was written for the Revision Panel by Margaret K. An adult with "decisional capacity" is one who is able to understand an explanation of her diagnosis, prognosis, and choices of treatment, as well as their risks and benefits, and likely outcome should treatment be refused.

    In States where parental consent is not required for treatment, the Federal confidentiality regulations permit a program to withhold services if the minor will not authorize a disclosure that the program needs in order to obtain financial reimbursement for that minor's treatment. Program staff may need training about what the State's child abuse and neglect laws require, including what conditions are considered reportable. See the discussion of child abuse reporting. Of course, a provider may turn an adolescent away for clinical reasons, that is, because it has determined that no treatment is needed or that the treatment it offers is inappropriate for the particular adolescent.

    In this case, the program might want to make a referral to another type of counseling service or to another substance use disorder treatment program. The procedure for making a referral is discussed in section 2. Only adolescents who have "applied for or received" services from a program are protected. If an adolescent has not yet been evaluated or counseled by a program and has not himself sought help from the program, the program is free to discuss the adolescent's substance use disorders with others, although it would not be wise to do so.

    But, from the time the adolescent applies for services or the program first conducts an evaluation or begins to counsel the youth, the Federal regulations govern. Although the rules concerning CJS consent probably apply to proceedings in juvenile court involving acts that, if committed by an adult, would be a crime, there appear to be no cases on point.

    It is less likely that the special CJS consent rules would apply when an adolescent is adjudicated found to be in need of special supervision e. If an attorney is not immediately available, and someone wants information about child abuse and neglect rules within a particular State, contact the social service or child welfare agency for that area. Nationally, the Child Welfare League of America can also be called at Definitions of terms can also be accessed on the Internet.

    State statute definitions are located at http: Additional information about dealing with subpoenas appears in Confidentiality: Legal Action Center, ed. Outcome evaluation that assesses clients' behavior at set times after completion of treatment the importance of which is mentioned in Chapter 2 poses particular problems under the Federal regulations. Computerization of records greatly complicates efforts to ensure security.

    Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Chapter 8—Legal and Ethical Issues. Can the provider admit an adolescent into the treatment program without obtaining the consent of a parent, guardian, or other legally responsible person? How can substance use disorder treatment programs communicate with others concerned about an adolescent's welfare without violating the stringent Federal regulations protecting confidentiality of information about clients?

    Consent to Treatment Americans attach great importance to being left alone. State Laws More than half the States, by law, permit adolescents less than 18 years of age to consent to substance use disorder treatment without parental consent. The sole exception allows a program director to communicate "facts relevant to reducing a threat to the life or physical well-being of the applicant or any other individual to the minor's parent, guardian, or other person authorized under State law to act in the minor's behalf," when The program director believes that the adolescent, because of extreme youth or mental or physical condition, lacks the capacity to decide rationally whether to consent to the notification of her parent or guardian.

    The program director believes the disclosure to a parent or guardian is necessary to cope with a substantial threat to the life or physical well-being of the adolescent applicant or someone else. Other Variables The adolescent's age. The family circumstances as related by the adolescent--verifying the adolescent's view of his family, with his consent, by contacting an adult who knows the family well. The nature, severity, and complexity of presenting problems, and the kind of treatment the program provides. The program's financial capacity to provide treatment without reimbursement from the family.

    With the above factors in mind, an assessment of the potential liability of the program if the adolescent is admitted. Privacy and Confidentiality Those who treat adolescents with substance use disorders are naturally concerned about their clients' privacy and confidentiality. Federal Law Protects Adolescents' Right to Privacy Concerned about the adverse effects social stigma and discrimination have on clients in recovery and how that stigma and discrimination might deter people from entering treatment, Congress passed legislation, and the Department of Health and Human Services issued a set of regulations to protect information about clients' substance use disorder treatment.

    The name or general description of the program s making the disclosure. A statement that the adolescent may revoke take back the consent at any time, except to the extent that the program has already acted on it. The date, event, or condition upon which the consent will expire if not previously revoked. The purpose of the disclosure and how much and what kind of information will be disclosed. The purpose of the disclosure and how much and what kind of information will be disclosed These two items are closely related. The adolescent's right to revoke consent The adolescent may revoke consent at any time, and the consent form must include a statement to this effect.

    Expiration of consent form The form must also contain a date, event, or condition on which it will expire if not previously revoked. The signature of the adolescent and the issue of parental consent The adolescent must always sign the consent form in order for a program to release information even to her parent or guardian. Required notice against redisclosing information Once the consent form has been properly completed, there remains one last formal requirement.

    Common Issues Now that the rules regarding consent are clear, attention can turn to the questions that were introduced at the beginning of this section. How can a program seek information from collateral sources about an adolescent, coordinate care with other agencies serving the adolescent, and make referrals for the adolescent? Are there special rules for adolescents who are involved in the juvenile or criminal justice systems? Do programs have a duty to warn potential victims or law enforcement agencies of threats by adolescents, and if so, how do they communicate the warning?

    Seeking Information From Collateral Sources, Coordinating Care, and Making Referrals Making inquiries of schools, doctors, and other health care providers might, at first glance, seem to pose no risk to an adolescent's right to confidentiality. Never did I use a planning app before, but out of all the ones I saw, this is the best! However, my favorite feature is the priority rating option they give you.

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    As heated the work material yields at 75 MPa, and has no tendency to strain harden. Determine the maximum force required to perform the operation. The two radii are: The volume of billet compressed forward to fill the frustum is given by: Final cross-section after extrusion is a square with 1.

    Dimensions of the cross-section are given in Figure P The final dimensions of the cup are: The motors driving the capstans at the die exits can each deliver 1. Determine the maximum possible speed of the wire as it exits the second die. The calculations indicate that the second draw die is the limiting step in the drawing sequence.

    The first operation would have to be operated at well below its maximum possible speed; or the second draw die could be powered by a higher horsepower motor; or the reductions to achieve the two stages could be reallocated to achieve a higher reduction in the first drawing operation. The three operations are: A cutoff operation separates parts from a strip by shearing one edge of each part in sequence. A parting operation cuts a slug between adjacent parts in the strip. In V-bending, a simple punch and die which have the included angle are used to bend the part.

    In edge bending, the punch force a cantilevered sheet metal section over a die edge to obtain the desired bend angle. Springback is the elastic recovery of the sheet metal after bending; it is usually measured as the difference between the final included angle of the bent part and the angle of the tooling used to make the bend, divided by the angle of the tooling. Measures of drawing feasibility include: In redrawing, the shape change is significant enough e. In reverse drawing, two draws are accomplished on the part, one in one direction, the second in the opposite direction.

    Stretch forming of sheet metal involves stretching and simultaneous bending of the workpart to achieve shape change. Two press frame types are: Advantage of mechanical presses: Advantages of hydraulic presses: The Guerin process is a sheet metal forming process that uses a rubber die which flexes to force the sheet metal to take the shape of a form block punch.

    A major technical problem in tube bending is collapse of the tube walls during the process. Roll bending involves the forming of large sheet and plate metal sections into curved forms. Roll forming involves feeding a lone strip or coil through rotating rolls so that the shape of the rolls is imparted to the strip. Multiple Choice Quiz There are a total of 17 correct answers in the following multiple choice questions some questions have multiple answers that are correct.

    Problems Cutting Operations At what clearance should the shears be set to yield an optimum cut? Determine the appropriate punch and die sizes for this operation. Determine the dimensions of the blanking punch and the die opening. Assume that blanking and punching occur simultaneously. What are the possible reasons for the burrs, and what can be done to correct the condition? Reasons for excessive burrs: To correct the problem: If they are, regrind the faces to sharpen the cutting edges.

    If not, die maker must rebuild the punch and die. The part drawing is given in Figure P Determine the blank size required. For convenience, these sides should be measured to the beginning of the bend radius. The stretched length of the bend along the neutral axis will be: Therefore, the length of the neutral axis of the part will be 2 1.

    DR is too large greater than 2. The actual cup height possible with a mm diameter blank can be determined by comparing surface areas one side only for convenience between the cup and the starting blank. To compute the cup surface area, let us divide the cup into two sections: This is less than the specified 75 mm height.

    Is the operation feasible ignoring the fact that the punch radius is too small? Use surface area computation, assuming thickness t remains constant. Of course, the zero punch radius makes this operation infeasible anyway. With a rounded punch radius, the blank size would be slightly smaller, which would reduce DR. The surface area of the cup will be divided into three sections: The centroid is located at the center of the arc which is 0.

    Thus, the diameter of the circle described by the centroid is 4. Whereas the operation in Problem Since the DR is greater than 2. The samples have various defects. One has ears, another has wrinkles, and still a third has torn sections at its base. What are the causes of each of these defects and what remedies would you propose? The material is anisotropic. One remedy is to anneal the metal to reduce the directionality of the properties. There are several possible remedies: This may not be possible since a design change is required.

    A remedy would be to provide a large punch radius. Tearing can also occur due to a die corner radius that is too small. The drawn cup consists of three sections: The diameter of 3. The tubes will be used to deliver fluids in a chemical plant. In one of the bends where the bend radius is mm, the walls of the tube are flattening badly. What can be done to correct the condition? The sand will act as an internal flexible mandrel to support the tube wall.

    In machining, material is removed from the workpart so that the remaining material is the desired part geometry. The three common machining processes are: Give an example of a machining operation that uses each of the tooling types. A roughing operation is used to remove large amounts of material rapidly and to produce a part geometry close to the desired shape.

    A finishing operation follows roughing and is used to achieve the final geometry and surface finish. A machine tool can be defined as a power-driven machine that positions and moves a tool relative to the work to accomplish machining or other metal shaping process. Orthogonal cutting involves the use of a wedge- shaped tool in which the cutting edge is perpendicular to the direction of speed motion into the work material. The three types are: The Merchant equation states that the shear plane angle increases when rake angle is increased and friction angle is decreased.

    Specific energy is the amount of energy required to remove a unit volume of the work material. The size effect refers to the fact that the specific energy increases as the cross-section area of the chip to x w decreases. A tool-chip thermocouple is comprised of the tool and chip as the two dissimilar metallic materials forming the thermocouple junction; as the tool-chip interface heats up during cutting, an emf is emitted from the junction which can be measured to indicate cutting temperature.

    Calculate a the shear plane angle and b the shear strain for the operation. Assuming that the friction angle remains the same, determine a the shear plane angle, b the chip thickness, and c the shear strain for the operation. Using the Merchant Equation, Eq. Use the orthogonal cutting model as an approximation of the turning process. Determine a the shear strength of the work material and b the coefficient of friction in the operation. The chip thickness ratio is measured after the cut to be 0.

    Based on your answers to the previous problem, compute: Using the orthogonal model as an approximation of turning, determine: The following conditions are used: Determine the cutting force and the feed force. Begin with the definition of the chip ratio, Eq. The arrowhead of Ft will now be at the base of the translated base of N. A right triangle now exists in which Fc is the hypotenuse and the two sides are 1 the extended Fs vector and 2 the constructed line that runs between Fs and the intersection of Fc and Ft.

    Power and Energy in Machining Since feed is greater than 0. Using the appropriate specific energy value from Table The work material is an alloy steel whose hardness is in the range to HB. Based on these values, can the job be performed on the 20 hp lathe? From your answers to those problems, find: Based on the unit horsepower values in Table Since feed is lower than 0.

    Based on the specific energy values in Table After the cut, the chip thickness ratio is measured to be 0. The machine settings are: The chip thickness after the cut is 0. The following cutting conditions are used: Using values of thermal properties found in the tables and definitions of Section 4. Use the appropriate value of specific energy from Table The thermal properties of the work material are: The following temperature data were collected during the cuts at three different cutting speeds feed and depth were held constant: Determine an equation for temperature as a function of cutting speed that is in the form of the Trigger equation, Eq.

    Rotational parts are cylindrical or disk-shaped and are machined on a turning machine; prismatic parts are block-shaped or flat and are generally produced on a milling machine, shaper, or planer. Generating refers to the creation of work geometry due to the feed trajectory of the cutting tool; examples include straight turning, taper turning, and profile milling.

    Forming involves the creation of work geometry due to the shape of the cutting tool; common examples include form turning and drilling. Two examples are thread cutting on a lathe and slot milling; both are described in Article Turning is a machining process in which a single point tool removes material from the surface of a rotating cylindrical workpiece, the tool being fed in a direction parallel to the axis of work rotation. A threading operation is performed on a turning machine and produces an external thread, while tapping is normally performed on a drilling machine and produces an internal thread.

    Boring produces an internal cylindrical shape from an existing hole, while turning produces an external cylindrical shape. A 12 x 36 lathe has a 12 inch swing maximum work diameter that can be accommodated and a 36 inch distance between centers indicating the maximum work length that can be held between centers. Methods of holding the work in a lathe include: A center holds the work during rotation at the tailstock end of the lathe. A live center is mounted in bearings and rotates with the work, while a dead center does not rotate - the work rotates about it.

    A turret lathe has a toolholding turret in place of a tailstock; the tools in the turret can be brought to work to perform multiple cutting operations on the work without the need to change tools as in operating a conventional engine lathe. A blind hole does not exit the work; by comparison, a through hole exits the opposite side of the workpart.

    A radial drill has a long radial arm along which the drill head can be positioned to allow the drilling of large workparts. In peripheral milling, cutting is accomplished by the peripheral teeth of the milling cutter and the tool axis is parallel to the work surface; in face milling, cutting is accomplished by the flat face of the cutter whose axis is perpendicular to the work surface.

    Profile milling generally involves the milling of the outside periphery of a flat part. Pocket milling uses an end milling cutter to machine a shallow cavity pocket into a flat workpart. In up milling, the cutter speed direction is opposite the feed direction; in down milling, the direction of cutter rotation is the same as the feed direction. The universal milling machine has a worktable that can be rotated about a vertical axis to present the part at any specified angle to the cutter spindle.

    A machining center is a CNC machine tool capable of performing multiple types of cutting operations involving rotating spindles e. A machining center is generally confined to rotating spindle operations e. The mill-turn center has the capacity to position a rotational workpart at a specified angular location, permitting milling or drilling to be performed at a location on the periphery of the part.

    In shaping, the work is stationary during the cut, and the speed motion is performed by the cutting tool; while in planing, the cutting tool is stationary, and the workpart is moved past the tool in the speed motion. Internal broaching is accomplished on the inside surface hole of a workpart; while external broaching is performed on one of the outside surfaces of the part.

    The three forms of sawing are: Multiple Choice Questions There are a total of 20 correct answers in the following multiple choice questions some questions have multiple answers that are correct. The piece is mm long and mm in diameter. Rearranging to determine cutting speed: The workpiece is mm long with minimum and maximum diameters of mm and mm at opposite ends. The rough geometry of the piece has already been formed, and this operation will be the final cut. Determine a the time required to turn the taper and b the rotational speeds at the beginning and end of the cut.

    Determine the rotational speed that would be required to complete the job in exactly the same time as your answer to part a of that problem. At a constant rotational speed and feed, feed rate fr is constant and Eqs. The bar will be held in a chuck and supported on the opposite end in a live center.

    With this workholding setup, one end must be turned to diameter; then the bar must be reversed to turn the other end. Using an overhead crane available at the lathe, the time required to load and unload the bar is 5. For each turning cut an allowance must be added to the cut length for approach and overtravel. Determine the total cycle time to complete this turning operation. Reverse bar which takes 3. Loading and unloading bar takes 5. Assume that x-y moves are made at a distance of 0. Also, the rate at which the drill is retracted from each hole is twice the penetration feed rate.

    Determine the time required from the beginning of the first hole to the completion of the last hole, assuming the most efficient drilling sequence will be used to accomplish the job. Time to drill each hole: The cutting conditions are: How long will it take to perform the operation at the new cutting conditions? The milling cutter, which is 75 mm in diameter and has four teeth, overhangs the width of the part on both sides. The cutter has four teeth cemented carbide inserts and is mm in diameter. The helical milling cutter, which has a 2. The milling cutter has four teeth cemented carbide inserts and a 3.

    How long will it take to complete the job, assuming that the part is oriented in such a way as to minimize the time? This will minimize the number of passes required which will minimize time in this case. The two main aspects of cutting tool technology are: The three tool failure modes are: Wear occurs on the top face of the cutting tool as crater wear and on the side or flank of the tool, called flank wear. Portions of flank wear are often identified separately as notch wear, corresponding to the surface of the work; and nose radius wear, corresponding to the tool point.

    The important tool wear mechanisms are: The parameter C is the cutting speed corresponding to a one-minute tool life. C is the speed-axis intercept on the log-log plot of the tool life data. The expanded version of the Taylor equation can include any of the following: Production tool life criteria include: Three desirable properties are: Principal alloying ingredients in HSS are: Some grades of HSS also contain cobalt.

    The non-steel cutting grades contain only WC and Co. The common coatings are: The seven elements of single point tool geometry are: Ceramics possess low shear and tensile strength but good compressive strength. During cutting, this combination of properties is best exploited by giving the tool a negative rake angle to tend to load the tool in compression. There are three principal ways: The two functional categories of cutting fluids are: The three types of cutting fluids are: There are two lubricating mechanisms that are believed to be effective in metal cutting: The most common method of application is flooding, in which a steady stream of fluid is direct at the operation.

    Cutting fluid filter systems are becoming more common due to the environmental protection laws and the need to prolong the life of the fluid before disposal. Advantages of filter systems include: In addition to causing odors and health hazards, contaminated cutting fluids do not perform their lubricating function as well as when they are fresh and clean. Problems Tool Life and the Taylor Equation The feed rate was 0. The last wear data value in each column is when final tool failure occurred. Are the resulting n and C values the same?

    Values of C and n may vary in part b due to variations in the plots. The values should be approximately the same as those obtained in part c below. A feed rate of 0. Determine the Taylor tool life equation for this job. Taylor equation calculated in Example Using complete failure as the criterion of tool life instead of 0. Determine the parameters n and C in the Taylor tool life equation for this data. Let us use the two extreme data points to calculate the values of n and C, then check the resulting equation against the middle data point. This represents a difference of less than 0.

    Better results on determining the Taylor equation would be obtained by using regression analysis on all three data sets to smooth the variations in the tool life data. Note that the n value is very close to the value obtained in Example The higher C value here reflects the higher wear level used to define tool life complete failure of cutting edge here vs. The following data were obtained during the tests: Three equations to be solved simultaneously: In a series of turning tests conducted to determine the parameters n, m, and K, the following data were collected: Determine n, m, and K.

    What is the physical interpretation of the constant K? This feed is of course an extrapolation and not a real possible feed value. Determine how many cubic mm of steel would be removed for each of the following tool materials, if a min tool life were required in each case: Sample holes have been drilled to determine the tool life at two cutting speeds. The feed rate of the drill was 0. Ignore effects of drill entrance and exit from the hole. Consider the depth of cut to be exactly 1. The cut will be made with a cemented carbide cutting tool whose Taylor tool life parameters are: Units for the Taylor equation are min.

    Compute the cutting speed that will allow the tool life to be just equal to the cutting time for this part. Both of these times must be expressed in terms of cutting speed. The cutting conditions will be: A cemented carbide cutting tool is to be used and the parameters of the Taylor tool life equation for this setup are: It is desirable to operate at a cutting speed so that the tool will not need to be changed during the cut. Determine the cutting speed which will make the tool life equal to the time required to complete the turning operation.

    These grades are listed below by chemical composition.

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    For each case, explain your recommendation. Specify a steel-cutting grade suitable for finishing. This is a grade with TiC and low cobalt. Specify a non-steel roughing grade. This is a grade with no TiC and high cobalt. Specify a non-steel finishing grade. This is a grade with no TiC and low cobalt. Cast iron is included with the non-steel grades. Specify grade 1 for finishing and grade 4 for roughing. A slot or keyway has been milled along its entire length. The turning operation reduces the shaft diameter. For each of the following tool materials, indicate whether or not it is a reasonable candidate to use in the operation: For each material that is not a good candidate, give the reason why it is not.

    The slot will result in an interrupted cut, so toughness is important in the tool material. The appropriate n and C values in the Taylor equation are given in Table A cutting oil is applied by the operator by brushing the lubricant onto the drill point and flutes prior to each hole.

    The foreman says that the "speed and feed are right out of the handbook" for this work material. Nevertheless, he says, "the chips are clogging in the flutes, resulting in friction heat, and the drill bit is failing prematurely due to overheating. What do you recommend to solve it? There are several problems here. First, the depth-to-diameter ratio is 1. As a consequence the chips produced in the hole are having difficulty exiting, thus causing overheating of the drill.

    Third, with overheating as a problem, the cutting oil may not be removing heat from the operation effectively. The twist drill might be operated in a peck-drilling mode to solve the chip clogging problem. Peck-drilling means drilling for a distance approximately equal to one drill diameter, then retract the drill, then drill some more, etc. A twist drill with a fluid hole could be used to more effectively deliver the cutting fluid to the drill point to help extract the chips. Finally, an emulsified oil might be tried in the operation, one with good lubricating qualities, as a substitute for the cutting oil.

    Since overheating is a problem, it makes sense to try a coolant. Machinability can be defined as the relative ease with which a material can be machined using an appropriate cutting tool under appropriate cutting conditions. The machinability criteria include: The properties mentioned in the text include: Because additional operations such as grinding, lapping, or similar finishing processes must be included in the manufacturing sequence at higher cost. The factors that affect surface finish are: The ideal surface roughness is determined by geometric parameters of the machining operation.

    Steps to reduce vibration in machining include: The first three terms are: What is the fourth term? The fourth term is the cost of purchasing and grinding, if applicable the tool. Cutting speed for minimum cost. The fourth term in the unit cost equation, dealing with the actual cost of the cutting edge, tends to push the U-shaped function toward a lower value in the case of cutting speed for minimum cost. Multiple Choice Quiz There are a total of 14 correct answers in the following multiple choice questions some questions have multiple answers that are correct.

    These results were obtained using cemented carbide tooling. Compute the machinability rating for this case. Units in both cases are: The feed and depth during these tests were: Based on this information, and machinability data given in Table Assume that the same feed and depth of cut are to be used. First determine v30 for the base material: Compute an estimate of the surface roughness for this cut. Determine the surface roughness for this cut. Determine the surface roughness for this operation.

    The part is made of a free-machining aluminum alloy. Determine the feed that will achieve the specified surface finish. The part is made of a free-machining steel.

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    The work material is cast iron. The cutting conditions have been selected as follows: The nose radius of the cutting tool must be selected. Determine the minimum nose radius that will obtain the specified finish in this operation. The cutter uses four inserts and its diameter is 3. The cutter is a four-tooth insert type face milling cutter. The machine shop foreman thinks the problem is that the work material is too ductile for the job, but this property tests well within the ductility range for the material specified by the designer.

    Without knowing any more about the job, what changes in cutting conditions and tooling would you suggest to improve the surface finish? Changes in cutting conditions: Items 2 and 3 will have a marginal effect. Determine the speed and feed combination that meets these criteria.

    Increasing feed will increase both MRR and Ra. Increasing speed will increase MRR and reduce Ra. Therefore, it stands to reason that we should operate at the highest possible v. Optimum cutting conditions are: Estimate the surface roughness for a up-milling, and b down-milling. Assuming first that the teeth are equally spaced around the cutter, and that each tooth projects an equal distance from the axis of rotation, determine the theoretical surface roughness for a up-milling, and b down-milling.

    The parameters in the Taylor equation are: The same grade of cemented carbide tooling is available in two forms for turning operations in a certain machine shop: The parameters in the Taylor equation for this grade are: The standard time to grind or regrind the cutting edge is 5. For the two tooling cases, compare: Which tool would you recommend?

    Cycle time and cost per piece are less. Comparing the results in this problem with those of the previous problem, note that with the maximum production rate objective here, cycle times are less, but that unit costs are less in the previous problem where the objective is minimum cost per piece. Both carbide and ceramic tools are in insert form and can be held in the same mechanical toolholder.

    The Taylor equation parameters for the cemented carbide are: The part dimensions are: Setup time for the batch is 2. For the three tooling cases, compare: One might conclude that such a low proportion of time spent cutting would argue against the use of the calculated cutting speed for ceramic tooling. However, note that ceramic tooling provides a significant advantage in terms of unit cost, batch time, and production rate compared to HSS tooling and even carbide tooling. The very small cutting time Tm and resulting low proportion of time spent cutting for ceramic tooling focuses attention on the nonproductive work elements in the batch time, specifically, setup time and workpart handling time; and puts pressure on management to seek ways to reduce these nonproductive elements.

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    Current cutting conditions are: The parameters of the Taylor equation for the cutting tool in the operation are: Assume that feed must remain unchanged in order to achieve the required surface finish. What is the current production rate and the maximum possible production rate for this job? The operator loads and unloads the machine. The starting diameter of the work is 3. The work cycle consists of the following steps with element times given in parentheses where applicable: In addition, the cutting tool must be periodically changed. This tool change time takes 1. The applicable Taylor tool life equation has parameters: Assume both passes have equal Tm.

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