The ruler of Lagash, Eanatum , was inspired by the god Ningirsu to attack the rival kingdom of Umma; the two were involved in minor skirmishes and raids along their respective borders. After the battle, he proudly documented the behavior of the vultures. According to legend, Sargon , the first king of the Akkadian Kingdom, was discovered by a gardener in Mesopotamia in a basket. His inscriptions boast of 34 victories and "5, men eating bread before Sargon", exemplifying both the vast manpower and the obedience of his troops and possibly a standing army as well.
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Though small by the standards of later kings, Sargon's army was larger and more sophisticated than others of the time, utilizing a combination of spears and missile weapons. Bronze swords and four wheeled chariots  brushed aside any resistance as he carved out his empire, which may well have included at least briefly parts of the Mediterranean, Anatolia and western Iran. From to BC, Assyria became a major empire and world power, rivalling Egypt. Despite the apparent weakness of Assyria, at heart it remained a solid, well defended nation whose warriors were the best in the world.
Assyria, with its stable monarchy and secure borders, was in a stronger position during this time than potential rivals such as Egypt, Babylonia , Elam , Phrygia , Urartu , Persia and Media  Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II — BC. Information on the Assyrian army during this time is difficult to make out. The Assyrians were able to establish their independence on two occasions, during the Old Assyrian Kingdom and the Middle Assyrian Kingdom , with the latter reaching as far as Babylon in their pursuit of conquest.
However, military tactics mainly involved using troops raised from farmers who had finished planting their fields and so could campaign for the king until harvest time called for their attention again. The result was that military campaigning was limited to a few months of the year. As a result, armies could not conquer vast amounts of land without having to rest and hence allow their enemy to recover and even if they did they would not be able to garrison conquered lands with troops for long.
The Assyrian army's hierarchy was typical of the Mesopotamian armies at the time. The King whose rule was sanctioned by the gods, would be the commander of the entire army of the Empire. He would appoint senior officers on certain occasions to campaign in his place if his presence on the battlefield could or had to be spared. Soldiers were mostly raised farmers, who had to return to their fields to collect the harvest.
Professional soldiers were limited to a few bodyguards that protected the King and or other nobles and officials but these would not have been deployed or wasted in battle unless the situation became urgent, as it later did. Assyrian armies could be very large; Shalmaneser III once boasted a force of , men in his campaigns against Syria. A large army also needed more food and supplies and for this the Assyrians organized what they needed for a campaign before they set out.
Preparations for a new campaign required first and foremost the assembly of troops at a designated base. In Assyria, the designated locations included Nineveh, Kalhu or Khorsabad. On some occasions the designated meeting points would change depending upon the campaign. Governors were instructed to accumulate supplies of grain, oil and war material. Other requirements of the Governors included calling up the needed manpower. Vassal states were in particular required to present troops as part of their tribute to the Assyrian king and in good time: The arrival of the King and his bodyguard ended the preliminary stage and the army would move on to the target of their campaign.
The army would march in good order; in the vanguard came the standard of the Gods, signifying the servitude of the Assyrian Kings to their primary God Assur. Following this was the King, the humble servant of Assur surrounded by his bodyguard with the support of the main chariot divisions and cavalry, the elite of the army.
In the rear was the infantry; the Assyrian troops followed by the conquered peoples. Following this would be the siege train, supply wagons and then the camp followers. Such a formation would have been very vulnerable to a rear attack. Some columns of troops could travel 30 miles a day and such speed would have been used to surprise and frighten an opponent into submission. Before long, the weaknesses of the Assyrian army soon began to show itself. Battle after battle killed off important soldiers, while the seasons ensured that soldiers returned after a short time to their fields without achieving decisive conquests.
By the mid-8th century BC, the Assyrian levy-army could not cope with the demands of an empire that often stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. After increasing the efficiency of the Assyrian administration,  he went on to change the Assyrian army as well. This included a larger number of foreign soldiers but mixed in with other Assyrian soldiers. They were given Assyrian equipment and uniform which made them indistinguishable from one another, possibly to increase their integration.
With the rise of the Assyrian Empire, new demands were placed on transport and communication. Prior to the Neo-Assyrian Empire, roads in Mesopotamia were little more than well-trodden pathways used by the locals. However, this was inadequate for an empire whose armies were constantly on the move, repressing one revolt after another.
The Assyrians were the first to institute, control and maintain a system of roads throughout their empire. Later, these would form the basis for the Persians to expand this system to their own empire. Rugged mountains were cut through thus greatly decreasing travel time.
Engineers built fine stone pavements leading up to the grand cities of Assur and Nineveh , so as to impress foreigners with the wealth of Assyria. By the 2nd millennium BC, wooden bridges were built across the Euphrates. By the 1st millennium BC, Nineveh and Assur had stone bridges,  testament to the wealth of the kingdom of Ashur. The construction of roads and increased transport meant that goods would flow through the empire with greater ease, thus feeding the Assyrian war effort further.
Of course, roads that sped up Assyrian troops would not discriminate and would speed up enemy troops as well. The Assyrians were the first to use camels as beasts of burden for their military campaigns. Camels were of greater use than donkeys because they can carry five times the load and yet require less watering.
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Traditionally, the Sumerians are credited for inventing the wheel sometime before BC, although there is increasing evidence to support an Indo-European origin in the Black Sea region of Ukraine Wolchover, Scientific American, In any case, the Assyrians were the first to manufacture tires of metal, made from copper, bronze and later iron. The core of the Assyrian army lay in its chariots. Originally these chariots were used as two-horse vehicles.
The Ancient Egyptians and Sumerians used war chariots in this fashion as firing mobile platforms or as mobile command platforms; the elevated view would give the general some ability to see how the troops fared in battle. The Assyrians also used chariots in reconnaissance, carrying messages to and from the front lines, and for battle. However, the rise of cavalry in the 1st millennium BC meant that by the 7th century BC, the chariot was demoted to combat duties only; lighter chariots consisting of two to three horses were later upgraded under the reign of Ashurnasirpal II to heavy four horse chariots.
Such chariots could contain up to four men. Heavier chariots also found new roles, smashing into enemy formations and dispersing the infantry in the process. Cavalry were rarely used by the Assyrians or many other Mesopotamians until the 9th century BC, when their use is mentioned during the reign of Tukulti-Ninurta II. The Assyrians had to counter this mobile form of warfare and so beat their opponents, notably the Iranians, at their own game. It is ironic that the raiding by that people assisted Assyrian attempts in building a cavalry army with which to destroy the Kingdom of Elam.
However, Assyrian attempts were not without difficulties; horse archers were used but could not use their bows and the reins of their horses at the same time. As a result, cavalry under Ashurnasirpal are depicted in pairs, with one rider holding both reins and the other shooting with a bow. The Assyrians experienced fewer problems with cavalry when they were deployed as lancers; under Tiglath Pileser III , the Assyrian Cavalry continued to be paired but this time each warrior held his own lance and controlled his own horse.
Cavalry were to form the core of the later Assyrian armies. Large units of cavalry were required to be deployed by the Assyrians; some units consisted of hundreds or even a thousand horsemen. There is little doubt that without a continuous supply of horses, the Assyrian war machine would have collapsed. As the empire suffered horrendous casualties under Ashurbanipal's campaigns of conquest, the rebellions following his death may have contributed significantly to the downfall of the empire as fewer vassals were available to pay tribute horses and other war material needed.
Horses were a very important war resource and the Assyrian king himself took a personal interest in overseeing an adequate horse supply. Three main sources of horses were:. Horses were be drawn from outlying provinces and brought in to be trained with new recruits for war. While cavalry provided the most expensive and effective arm of the Assyrian Empire, infantry were cheaper and more numerous. In the right circumstances, they were also more effective, for example in siege warfare where the mobility provided by horsemen would be of no advantage. Assyrian infantry were composed of both native Assyrians and foreigners employed as auxiliaries , spearmen, slingers, shield bearers or archers.
The latter type was the most dominant in Assyrian armies. Even in siege warfare, arrows were used to drive back defenders from the wall while engineers advanced against the fortifications. Many different types of bows are recorded by the Assyrians, including Akkadian, Cimmerian and their own "Assyrian" type. However, it is most likely that these were simply different variants of the powerful composite bow.
Depending upon the bow, an archer would have a range of anything between to meters. Vast numbers of arrows could be expended in battle so in preparation for war many arrows would be made. Facilities also existed that would travel with the army's supply train that could manufacture more arrows. Lancers were introduced to the infantry under Tiglath-pileser III.
Assyrian frontal offensives were designed to shock the enemy and surprise them. However, they were also a strategy employed when time was not on their side:. Despite the above, Sargon II's instinct saved the day; leading his exhausted troops, he launched a surprise attack against his Urartian opponents who broke at the speed and surprise of the attack. So vicious was the battle that the Urartian King abandoned his state officials, governors, members of the royal family, many cavalry and infantry, and even the capital itself.
The nature of Mesopotamia; plain and fertile with few natural defenses meant that defensive operations were out of the question; only a decisive attack could defend such vulnerable yet valuable locations. The cities of Assur and Nineveh were both "sandwiched" between rivers, Nineveh being more so enclosed and protected by the Tigris while Assur, while being close to the Tigris, was a fair distance away from the Euphrates. The result was that both cities had a measure of natural protection.
However, rivers would not stop a determined army so attacking and destroying the enemies' ability to wage war was the best method of ensuring survival. To this end the Assyrians sought a decisive encounter that would destroy the enemies' army. The Assyrians, in conjunction with their deportation see below would also send some of their own into foreign lands and settle them as colonists. The primary aim was to establish a loyal power base; taxes, food and troops could be raised here as reliably as at their homeland, or at least it must have been hoped.
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Furthermore, their presence would bring innumerable benefits; resistance to other conquerors, a counter to any rebellions by the natives and assist the provincial Assyrian governors in ensuring that the vassal state was loyal to Assyria. One must be careful before assuming that the Assyrians utilized total war.
However, it is known that the Assyrians, as part of their overall strategy of weakening their opponents and of exacting revenge, would violently destroy what they could not take back or could not consolidate The Assyrians fully appreciated the use of terrorizing their enemies. To conserve manpower and rapidly move on to solve Assyria's multiple problems, the Assyrians preferred to accept the surrender of their opponents or else destroy their ability to resist a surrender. This in part explains their offensive strategy and tactics.
It is not known if the Assyrians were the first to deport people, although since none before had ruled the Fertile Crescent as they did it is likely that they were the first to practice it on a large scale. You don't benefit our community with your "one world" bullshit. If you're Muslim and refuse to convert or leave your faith you might as well just end it now. Even when we date Christian white people we get in shit.
The only reason we've managed to retain our identity has been because of the Christian faith and keeping to ourselves. Otherwise, we would have already been absorbed into the Arab, Kurdish, Persian, or Turkish people. What, do you think we have some magic words that you can say to make her parents forget that their daughter is about to marry a street shitter?
Believe it or not, even Indians discriminate against other caste system indians. They have a caste system with lower people at the bottom and see them as their slaves. The australoid looking ones are at the bottom So even Indians would not want to go out with this guy depending of what his specific ethnicity is.
Hi, I am myself currently dating an Assyrian woman. To be honest it will be very difficult for you and mostly for her. Mixed couples are badly considered by Assyrians since they are very nationalistic and there is pretty much nothing you can do about it. Firstly, is she a practicing Orthodox Christian?
And are you considering converting to the faith? Secondly, have you met her parents? Being Suraye is much more important than the church, khathi. It doesn't matter what his religion is. Blood is always the most important thing. Yeah I remember a year or so ago you made a post about Suraye living in areas with only nukhraya.
You bring up a good point however it is of the utmost importance for the umta to not give in. If being Suraye is important to someone then they should move to a new location. What upsets me is umtenaya that scream and shout Assyrian pride yet their partner is nukhraya. I understand that some people can not help it if they are completely isolated, but this is not the case most of the time. Men can relocate, but women are less likely to move and live on their own as they are more dependent on their family especially their mother.
Yeah I didn't think of that.
Well, I guess that would be up to the person, wouldn't it? And also to take a step back to what I said previously, the problem is with fake umtenaya that live in Suraye populated areas that still gravitate towards nukhraya. If you really like each other just keep dating and be the best bf you can be to her.
That's something she can only prove to her parents by showing them you make her happy. There are alot of crappy Assyrian guys that are Christian and everything a parent would want but are terrible people.
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So you gotta just be dope and accepting that it's a tough pill for some parents to swallow and hope through time they'll be cool with it. It's getting more and more acceptable to date outside of Assyrians. That's just how it is now with this new generation in America. We're not back in the old country having to marry from the same group of people. Just be respectful and worry about you two.
But if she's not worth it to you and you don't want the stress, then break up. I'm Assyrian and Christian and I'm not very active in my community and I dated a Muslim Indian girl last year and it was very similar. But honestly it's my life and I was happy at the time so why kill something good cuz parents don't like it.
Hope it all works out bro. My family had a hard time accepting my cousins girlfriend for a long time. My mom despised one of my Non-Assyrian girlfriends for a lot of the reasons above, BUT she was not a good choice for many other reasons. My wife is not Assyrian, but my entire family accepts her and loves her. It helps that he is a good guy. Either way, if it works out and you two love each other, her family will come around.
They are but even I have Armenian relatives who try to push the half Assyrians to their side, not the Assyrian side. Well if you REALLY want the relationship to continue, your best bet is to convert to her church, learn the language and adopt the culture. Even with all of these accomplished, the Assyrian community and her parents will probably still be mad considering your not Assyrian, not your fault, its just how our people are.
Honestly your best bet is to end the relationship, it's not worth the trouble, predicting similar situations I've seen the Assyrian side generally shuns out the couple, cutting her off completely from her family. You have to convert sorry, but the only thing man. Just like how some aussie bogan turned into a Assyrian, but some Assyrian kids lol. Stop stealing our women!!!!
We need all the Chaldean women in existence to marry Chaldean men so we can further our race!
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